Erikson’s Psycho-Social Development Theory

5 Stages of Psycho-Social Development:
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
(0-12/18 mos)
Establishing trust and confidence in self and caregiver (mother) (vs. developing sense of mistrust)
Autonomy vs. Shame or Doubt (18 mos-3.5 years)
Shame– sense of “self-consciousness”, similar to rage when turned inward to self, wish for one’s own invisibility, Doubt and fear– coming from anxiety of being attacked from behind
Child is learning self-control but may feel shame and fear if not successful
Initiative vs. Guilt (3.5 yrs-6 yrs)
Independence- the child starts to gain competency and tries to take more initiative, but may feel guilty if they perceive themselves as too forceful
Industry vs. Inferiority (6 yrs-12)
When child goes to school, they must learn a new set of skills or risk feeling inferior, incompetent or unworthy
Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18)
Students begin to develop their self-identity and start romantic relationships and define their political, religious, and occupational views.
Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young adulthood)
Young adults must either form intimate relationships or feel the negative consequences of isolation. Generativity vs. Stagnation (Adulthood)
Work- adult must continue to provide for his or herself and family if applicable ($, emotional support)
Ego Integrity vs. Despair (Maturity)
The elderly adult must reflect on their life and come to terms with their whole self and accomplishments or feel despair

A view on Identity vs. Role Confusion
Identity vs. Role Confusion: central crisis during adolescent years
Consolidated Identity: Ultimate goal of psychosocial development during late adolescence; continues into adulthood
Optimal Sense of Identity: Time diffusion, Self-consciousness, Work-paralysis
Social Role/Role Confusion: Identity crises